A process for the catalyzed industrial production of ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and pressure.
Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.
The time required for half of a reactant to be converted into product(s).
The time required for half of a given sample to undergo radioactive decay.
Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox reaction.
Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I
Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms precipates with soap.
A form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their differences in temperature.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.
Heat of Condensation
The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the vapour with no change in temperature.
Heat of Crystallization
The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change in temperature.
Heat of Fusion
The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting point with no change in temperature and is usually expressed in kJ/mol.
Heat of Solution
The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution that contains one mole of solute; the value is positive if heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is released (exothermic).
Heat of Vaporization
The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature. Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature and usually expressed ion kJ/mol.
Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
It is impossible to determine accurately both the momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.
The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to the concentration of the gas in the solution.
Hess' Law of Heat Summation
The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or a series of steps.
Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For example, all gases, all liquids or all solids.
A mixture which has uniform composition and properties throughout.
A series of compounds in which each member differs from the next by a specific number and kind of atoms.
Consisting of only one element.
All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single electrons before pairing begins (see Aufbau Principle)
Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with properties and energies intermediate between those of the original unhybridized orbitals.
A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of bound water.
Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere
Reaction of a substance with water.
The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole of gase and ions.
A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F.
The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or triple bond.
Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell
Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) and oxygen is the oxidizing agent.
The reaction of a substance with water or its ions.
An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction.
A device used to measure the densities of liquids and solutions.