Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and subsequent emission of visible light.
Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived from decay of organic materials under geological conditions of high pressure and temperature (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat and oil shale.
Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting) particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.
Substances that flow freely; gases and liquids.
A substance added to react with the charge, or a product of its reduction, in metallurgy; usually added to lower a melting point.
Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.
A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's highest filled electron energy band and the next higher energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level, a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy level.
A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded molecule or ion; counts bonding electrons as though they were equally shared between the two atoms.
Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical composition of a substance.
The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule for nonionic substances
The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic mass units.
The process in which a fractioning column is used in distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid mixture that have different boiling points.
Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while leaving other ions with similar properties in solution.
Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy
The thermodynamic state function of a system that indicates the amount of energy available for the system to do useful work at constant T and P.
Free Energy Change
The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous.
A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and having a single unpaired electron in an orbital.
Freezing Point Depression
The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by the presence of a solute.
The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave that pass a given observation point per unit time.
Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are supplied continuously.
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a continuous basis.
A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site in an organic compound.
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