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Background Radiation
Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low-level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace radioactive substances present in our environment.
A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole.
Band of Stability
Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of number of neutrons versus atomic number.
Band Theory of Metals
Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of metallic solids.
A device for measuring pressure.
A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only slightly.
Basic Anhydride
The oxide of a metal that reacts with water to form a base.
Basic Salt
A salt containing an ionizable OH group.
Beta Particle
Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays to a proton and an electron.
The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler substances by bacteria.
Binary Acid
A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more of the more electronegative nonmetals.
Binary Compound
A compound consisting of two elements; may be ionic or covalent.
Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy)
The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency of an atom.
where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2
Boiling Point
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the applied pressure; also the condensation point
Boiling Point Elevation
The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute.
Bomb Calorimeter
A device used to measure the heat transfer between system and surroundings at constant volume.
For more information see Analytical Chemistry
Bond Energy
The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds of a given kind (in gas phase).
The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous state.
Bond Order
Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals.
Bonding Orbital
A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it is derived; lends stability to a molecule or ion when populated with electron
Bonding Pair
Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.
Boron Hydrides
Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.
Born-Haber Cycle
A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy changes) which, when summed, represents the hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their standard states are converted into crystals of ionic compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)
Boyle's Law
At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied pressure.
Breeder Reactor
A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear fuel than it consumes.
Bronsted-Lowry Acid
A proton donor.
Bronsted-Lowry Base
A proton acceptor
Buffer Solution
Solution that resists change in pH; contains either a weak acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base and a soluble ionic salt of the base.
A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.

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